Friday, January 17, 2020

History of Shakeys Essay

Shakey’s Pizza was founded in Sacramento, California, on April 30, 1954, by Sherwood â€Å"Shakey† Johnson and Ed Plummer. Johnson’s nickname resulted from nerve damage following a bout of malaria suffered during World War II. The parlor opened on the first weekend, but since the pizza ovens were not yet completed, only beer was served and Shakey took the profits from beer sales and bought ingredients for pizza the following Monday. Shakey personally played dixieland jazz piano to entertain patrons. Shakey’s initially became known outside Sacramento, not for its pizza, but for the jazz program it sponsored on a regional radio network. Shakey Johnson is honored in the American Banjo Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, for his longtime use of banjo music at his pizza parlors. Other live music, including piano, was also a staple in the old Shakey’s parlors. The original store (a remodeled grocery store) at 57th and J Streets in Sacramento remained in bu siness until the mid 1990s. Expansion The second Shakey’s Pizza Parlor opened in Portland, Oregon, in 1956. Shakey’s opened their third parlor in Albany, Oregon, in 1959, which was the first building Shakey’s actually owned and the first building to be built in the distinct building style for which Shakey’s is known. It now operates as a used bookstore. According to Johnson, Shakey’s Pizza engaged in little market research and made most of its decisions on where to locate stores by going where Kinney Shoes opened stores. By the time Johnson sold his interest in 1967, there were 272 Shakey’s Pizza Parlors in the United States. The first international store opened in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in 1968. By 1975, the company had expanded to the Pacific Rim, including Japan and the Philippines. There are now more branches in the Philippines (then under San Miguel Corporation) than in the United States. Sale to Colorado Milling Shakey Johnson sold his half of the company for $3 million to Colorado Milling and Elevator in 1967, which acquired Plummer’s half for $9 million the next year. Second sale Shakey’s was again sold, this time to Hunt International Resources in 1974. Two franchisees bought the chain in 1984 and they sold out to Inno-Pacific Holdings of Singapore in 1989. Most of the U. S. stores closed during the time Inno-Pacific owned the chain. Some of the remaining franchisees took Inno-Pacific to court in 2003. Before this could come to trial, Shakey’s was sold to Jacmar Companies of Alhambra, California, in 2004. Jacmar had been the franchisee of 19 Shakey’s restaurants. At the time Hunt International bought Shakey’s in 1974, the restaurant chain had approximately 500 stores throughout the United States, including a store as far east as Cockeysville, Maryland. As of 2008, there were 63 stores total, with 55 of them in California. As of June 4, 2011, there are 58 Shakey’s restaurants in the US. 51 are located in California, the remainder are located in Auburn, Alabama; Nogales, Arizona; Warner Robins, Georgia; Waipahu, Hawaii; American Fork, Utah; Renton, Washington; and Spokane, Washington. Shakey’s has begun to open new franchises in new and existing territories. The most recent Shakey’s opened was in American Fork, Utah, with a buffet available open to close. Shakey’s in Iowa, Illinois and Northwest Indiana also featured an all day buffet in the 80’s. Other locations typically offer a weekday lunchtime buffet only.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Queen Elizabeth The Virgin Queen - 922 Words

Lizzie Scott â€Å"I am already bound unto a husband which is the Kingdom of England.† -Elizabeth I (Add Intro) Queen Elizabeth was famously known as â€Å"The Virgin Queen† for never marrying. She refused to share her power. Queen Elizabeth was born in 1533 and she and her sister were claimed to be illegitimate by her father, Henry VIII since he was looking for a male heir to his throne. Her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed by her husband Henry VIII for what historians believe was false charges of adultery and conspiracy when Elizabeth was just two. Elizabeth stayed at Hatfield House and learned many things including Latin and Greek. Her stepmother, Catherine Parr, saw Elizabeth’s potential and had her educated to the highest standards by learning the art of publicly speaking, and being able to address a large number of people. Her sister Mary or as many called her Bloody Mary died in 1558 and soon after Elizabeth was crowned Queen of England. Queen Elizabeth sets the score for female leaders represents the epitome of a strong female monarch. Queen Elizabeth demonstrated good leadership by being able to solve problems someone else created. In order to settle the differences in religion, Queen Elizabeth once said, â€Å"There is one Jesus Christ, the rest is a dispute of little importance† (qtd. In â€Å"Queen Elizabeth I Biography†). Queen Elizabeth knew about her sister â€Å"Bloody Mary† and how she got the name, so in order to bring back the peace to her land she called in Parliament inShow MoreRelatedQueen Elizabeth: Majestic Virgin Queen Essay2248 Words   |  9 Pageswhen I die, an inscription be engraved on a marble tomb, saying, â€Å"Here lieth Elizabeth, which reigned a virgin, and died a virgin.†Ã¢â‚¬  Unfortunately these words had become spasmodically through her reign as Queen. Queen Elizabeth was in a constant battle with Parliament for her to marry and leave an heir to the throne. She never married and did indeed die a virgin. Queen Elizabeth was often depicted in many painti ngs as a virgin and being of purity, of being of royalty, of strong political mind and strivingRead MoreReview Of Hail The Virgin Queen Essay1514 Words   |  7 PagesHail The Virgin Queen Elizabeth, a film made in 1998 depicts the early years of the reign of Elizabeth I of England and her struggle of learning exactly what it means to be a woman in control of an entire nation. This film is a historical drama with as many ups, downs, twists, and turns one would expect in a film where the main character is considered one of the most esteemed women in history. Elizabeth, played by actress Cate Blanchett at a time when England was divided in deciding whether or notRead MoreElizabethan Age Nationalism Essay1512 Words   |  7 Pagesthe young Elizabeth long before she became one of the most famous queens in history. Elizabeth’s grace and poise were honored from the start, but it was her intellect and vigor that ultimately won her the last word. She was their King, this virgin Queen that defined her life with the love of no man but a country of loyal subjects. England prospered in culture and religion as well as establishing itself as a world power, all during Elizab ethan times. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, nationalismRead MoreQueen Elizabeth As A Ruler For England1296 Words   |  6 Pagesof authority. When Elizabeth was appointed the Queen of England in a Constitutional Monarchy, many subjects of the English state did not respect her. This was in part due to her sister Mary’s previous failings as a ruler for England, as well as misogynistic assumptions about a woman’s ability to rule that were especially prevalent at this time in Western Europe. Throughout her 50 years of reign, Elizabeth not only managed to assert herself as a cunning and capable leader and Queen, but also gainedRead MoreFashion Essay : Queen Elizabeth I1013 Words   |  5 PagesDuring the mid to late 1500s, Queen Elizabeth I revolutionized dress in England, just as other women of power had done throughout the world. As a queen, Queen Elizabeth I’s clothes were reflective of her dominance, opulence and symbolic of her character. It was impera tive that the queen’s appearance to the people was impeccable, otherwise she would be criticized as weak and underserving. Catherine L. Howey contends: â€Å"Elizabeth had to present herself as a chaste, virginal woman to prove that she wasRead MoreElizabeth I Research Paper1591 Words   |  7 PagesEnglish III Elizabeth I I, Overview Elizabeth I (known simply as Elizabeth until the accession of Elizabeth II; 7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birthRead More Elizabeth The Film Essay1178 Words   |  5 PagesElizabeth The Film Theme of the Film: How Elizabeth managed to gain the throne through turmoil, and then maintain it through even greater conflict and opposition. Greatest Surprise of the Film: The attention to detail and the symbolism employed to make the story richer than any other period piece. The script was also very well written, and very well paced making the movie much more enjoyable to watch because it was interesting and did not drag. Historical Characters Prioritized:Read More Queen Elizabeth Essay examples1227 Words   |  5 Pages Queen Elizabeth I Queen Elizabeth, the first, proved to be a very good and loyal monarch to England. She brought about many changes, both good and bad. On September 7, 1533 a baby girl came into the world. Back then many parents would have been greatly disappointed to have had a baby girl, rather then a boy. However these parents were glad by the birth of their first child together. These proud parents were the king and queen of England, King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. The girl child was namedRead MoreA Brief Look at Queen Elizabeth I1189 Words   |  5 PagesMany people, in England, believe that there has always been one queen to stand above the rest. That queen was Elizabeth the 1st. She has made many accomplishments during her reign. From a compromise about what religion England would follow to defeating the Spanish Armada. Elizabeth was born September 7, 1533 in Greenwich England. She was the daughter of King Henry VII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth had a half sister from the king’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, and also had a halfRead MoreThe Reflection of Life During the Renaissance in Literature1601 Words   |  7 Pagesimportant that it was required for the bride’s father to assure the future spouse that she was indeed a virgin. The view of virginity during the Renaissance is shown in Hamlet when Hamlet asks Ophelia â€Å"are you honest†¦. are you fair† (Shakespeare III. I, 113-115). What Hamlet is simply questioning is whether Ophelia is a virgin. Ophelia is rather insulted and ashamed by this question, since not being a virgin during the Renaissance was something that was strongly looked down upon. When a daughter properly

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

The Fall Of The House Of Usher - 1635 Words

At first, the erratic, ambiguous, and disorientating narrative style of ‘The Fall of the House of Usher’ seems to lack consistent symbolism, and can be understood as a convention of the gothic genre. Macabre texts often employ unreliable narrators to convey readers down circuitous paths littered with false steps and red herrings, in order to postpone, and perhaps even prevent, arrival at singular interpretations of stories. In ‘The Fall of the House of Usher’, the narrator suddenly and ambiguously reveals facts about the house and its inhabitants, and couches his observations in ornate and turgid language. These features seem superfluous, but force readers to collude in the mysterious, entertaining and infinite game of engineered interpretation that the gothic genre revels in. Nevertheless, a second reading of the text reveals uncanny similarities between the narrator and Roderick– both men ultimately share a belief in â€Å"the sentience of all vege table things† (185), possess the power to distort the distinction between art and reality, and suffer from â€Å"a morbid acuteness of the senses† (181). This suggests that the malady plaguing the surviving branches of the Usher family has infected the narrator. Therefore, the perplexing, and oftentimes infuriating narrative style of ‘The Fall of the House of Usher’ reflects both authorial manipulation essential to create a suspenseful gothic tale, and also unconscious manipulation by the mentally disturbed narrator (itself a gothicShow MoreRelatedThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1243 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The Fall Of The House Of Usher:† The Mysterious Family In the story â€Å" The Fall of the House of Usher† by Edgar Allan Poe, has an American romanticism with its characters. Edgar Allan Poe is considered a Dark Romanticism because of the way he writes his poems and short stories centered around the concept of evil human nature, darkness, and death. Roderick and Madeline Usher were said to be related during the middle of the story; they were twins. It explained how they were sick, Roderick had a mentalRead MoreThe Fall of the House of Usher700 Words   |  3 Pages â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† is a classic horror story written by Edgar Allen Poe. Edgar wrote descriptively through the physical setting, the first person point of view, and the uniquely dynamic characters. These elements worked together to create suspense and kept the readers curious. The first fiction of element begins in the very first paragraph. The unknown narrator described the day as a â€Å"dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . The setting while the narrator wasRead MoreThe Fall of the House of Usher1239 Words   |  5 PagesA young man ran away from a heap of ruins. He had witnessed the death of his best friend and his home but he ran away as it happened. At the moment, all was silent and not even a squeak could be heard. But if a house collapsed in the middle of a forest, and no one was around to hear it, did it make a sound? With such wonders, death, and darkness also come the work of Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe is known as a literature legend. He wrote many complicated horror and detective fiction stories, whichRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher856 Words   |  4 PagesThe Fall of the House of Usher and House Taken Over In Edgar Allan Poe’s â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† and Julio Cortazar’ â€Å"House Taken Over† the short stories represent the genre of Gothic Literature. Gothic Literature is a genre that combines fiction, horror, death, and romance. Some of these traits are seen in both of these stories through characters and settings. However, there are other traits that set them apart. To begin with, one of the major themes in both of these stories is fear. InRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1285 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† has been noted as one of Edgar Allan Poe’s most famous short stories. The story begins when the narrator arrives at the house of his friend, Roderick Usher. Roderick is ill and has been living his life deeply reclusive. His sister Madeline suffers from a sensory disorder and is considered to be dead. The narrator attempts to comfort Roderick and alleviate his melancholy by reading a story that appears to foreshadow later events. In this story, Poe provides his audienceRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1612 Words   |  7 PagesThe second message of Poe s The Fall of the House of Usher is that moral disintegration should necessarily lead to destruction as a sort of mundane punishment. Usher blames himself for burying his sister before death so he expects punishment. One conclusion to be d rawn from the final scene is that Roderick dies of fear. Madeline appears in her coffin and rushes upon him and he falls to the floor a corpse. Symbolically Madeline is just a physical embodiment of Roderick’s fears and punishment.Read MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1727 Words   |  7 PagesFate’s Influence in â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† Depressing imagery, confrontation of death, and the intense madness humans are capable of are all themes integrated into Edgar Allan Poe’s stories. The psychology of the human psyche prompted him to create the complex tales that made him famous. Poe’s story of obsession and the power of suggestion is beautifully written through the narrator’s tale. In â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher†, the characters portray the self-manifesting development of one’sRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1133 Words   |  5 Pagesthe story â€Å" The Fall of the House of Usher† by Edgar Allan Poe, has american romanticism with the characters. Edgar Allan Poe is considered a Dark Romanticism because of his poems and short stories centered around the ideas of evil human nature, darkness, and death. Roderick Usher and Madeline were that kind of person in this story; they were twins. There were sick; Roderick had mental disorder and physically and Madeline wa s physically sick. As the narrator enters the desolate house, he finds bothRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher2041 Words   |  9 Pagesfact that he makes a smooth transition from symbolism to allegory in his writings. Edgar Allan Poe uses a more gothic style of writing that gives his science fiction literature unique character. One of Poe’s more popular stories is â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† in which he uses deep symbolism and imagery to tell the story. Although both short stories portray critical use of allegory and symbolism, it is based upon opinion as to which story is the more superior. â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† is more superiorRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher888 Words   |  4 Pages Edgar Allen Poe’s short story The Fall of the House of Usher was very captivating. Once I began reading the story I couldn’t put the book down till I was done. I believe the protagonist in the story was Roderick Usher. I always assumed a protagonist to be heroic in some way. Roderick Usher’s character, however, was not heroic. Usher was not only a hypochondriac, but he was a mentally and physically sick man. I have no doubt that a lot of his mental and physical maladies sprouted from years

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Cathedral By Raymond Carver Analysis - 1631 Words

Cathedral is a short story written by American writer and poet Raymond Carver. (2017) The story was first published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1981 and appeared in The Americas Best Short Stories in 1982. (2012) In the short story cathedral, the narrator’s wife’s blind friend is coming to visit. The narrator isn’t thrilled about his wife’s blind friend coming to visit nor is he happy that the man is blind. Later in the evening the narrator experiences a life changing realization of the true meaning of seeing after connecting with the blind man whom he previously had no interest in knowing. In the short story â€Å"Cathedral† Raymond Carver revels through character description that those who are blind see the world differently from those who†¦show more content†¦(Famous Authors 2012) The narrator beings the story by telling the readers about his wife’s blind friend that is coming to visit. The narrator isn’t very thrilled about the blind man coming to visit nor is he thrilled that the man is blind. The narrator explains how his wife had met. The narrator’s wife and the blind man became good friends, He explains that his wife and the blind man have kept in touch over the years by sending audio tapes back and forth. The narrator begins making fun of the man for being blind and mentions how awful the blind man’s wife must have felt knowing her husband was never able to know what she looked like. The day comes and the narrator’s wife goes to pick up the blind man who is introduced as Robert. When the narrator’s wife arrives back to the house the narrator is shocked when he sees the blind man. He begins describing what the blind man is wearing and how the blind man doesn’t carry a cane or have a blind walking dog and h ow the blind man doesn’t wear glasses like he pictured. They sat down to the table and ate dinner, after dinner they sat down in the living room. Robert begins talking to the narrator’s wife about his life the past ten years. The narrator observers and listens to their conversation but doesn’t really join in. Later the story the narrator’s wife falls asleep on the couch. The narrator not really knowing what to talk about with Robert turns theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Cathedral By Raymond Carver Essay830 Words   |  4 PagesMistakable Judgments An Analysis of â€Å"Cathedral† Raymond Carver wrote a long-lived short story name â€Å"Cathedral†. Where a divorced women remarried after a hard experience to a person who is struggling to accept his wife’s very long relationship with a blind man. Her new husband suspiciousness controls his emotions and draw his thoughts falsely. As her very old friendship was having an unfortunate event that his wife had passed away, he arranged with her a visit to their house, which concerned herRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral1696 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction: Everyone has ghosts in their closets; something they are running from, or trying to bury alive. Cathedral, written by Raymond Carver, takes place in the early 1980’s. Originally published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1981. Carver slightly revised the story and re-released it in 1983. At a time when the blue collar working class lived paycheck to paycheck, working hard for newfound luxuries such as color television, this short story is humorous and eye-opening for the reader. For adultsRead MoreRaymond Carver Cathedral Analysis1231 Words   |  5 PagesIn Raymond Carver’s â€Å"Cathedral†, it tells the story of a man whose wife one summer, worked for a blind man. The blind man and the husband’s wife, kept in touch throughout the years by sending cassettes back and forth in the mail. The blind man’s wife recently died and the husband’s wife invites him to say in her home, but her husband is displeased by this request. In the beginning of the story, the husband is very rude to the blind man and finds amusement by making fun of the blind man’s disabilityRead MoreCathedral Raymond Carver Analysis1212 Words   |  5 PagesIn â€Å"Cathedral,† Carver’s use of visualization and climactic change of character emphasizes the theme that looking and seeing are two very different things. When Raymond Carver had his wife’s blind friend, Robert, join them for a few days, he should’ve been more understanding and empathetic with Robert’s blindness instead of just avoiding it or brushing it off as if it’s not there. Carver did very well in changing his ways and learning to accept and understand Robert. Carver also did a good job ofRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral 1648 Words   |  7 Pages Cathedral is a capitivating story based on the lives of the narrator, his wife and a blind man. Raymond Carver is the author of this story, and he does an excellent job allowing the reader to delve into the lives of these characters. Through using the thoughts of the narrator, the reader is able to grab our attention because the story is made more realistic. The views expressed by the narrator in many senses exemplify the views of many in society and therefore the reader is able to make an emotionalRead MoreAnalysis Of `` Cathedral `` By Raymond Carver920 Words   |  4 PagesRaymond Carver’s unnamed narrator in â€Å"Cathedral† provides a first-person point of view. This perspective opens a clear window into the feelings, attitudes, and the isolation of the unnamed narrator. The narrator’s tone of voice reveals his feelings and personality. This contributes to the story’s themes because the reader comes to understand things that the narrator never dir ectly or deliberately reveals; as a result, the reader comes to empathize with the narrator more deeply. Isolation and lonelinessRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver Cathedral1260 Words   |  6 PagesRaymond Carver is often known for his writing style known as minimalism, a style that often uses short phrases or sentences that convey a great amount of meaning. Carver’s â€Å"Cathedral† is full of minimalism, whether it be short and repetitive dialogue or brief thoughts that go through the narrators mind. These intentionally precise sentences are full of meaning, whether it be the importance of communication, or the lack of, the underlying tones of death and jealously, or even the psychological connectionRead MoreAnalysis Of Cathedral By Raymond Carver1541 Words   |  7 PagesA New Perspective Everyone at one point has judged a book by its cover. In the short story, â€Å"Cathedral†, Raymond Carver creates a narrator who bases off ideas and assumptions about blind people from movies. The narrator has never interacted with a blind person before the day where his wife invites her friend, who is named Robert, to stay. The narrator and Robert have never met, but the narrator has a strong dislike towards Robert before meeting. The narrator’s closed-mindedness and misconceptionsRead MoreAn Analysis Of Cathedral By Raymond Carver1441 Words   |  6 Pages Cathedral Research Paper The short story â€Å"Cathedral†, by Raymond Carver, is a thought provoking piece that focuses on the transition a man goes through to see the world with his soul. The story gives hope that people can change if given the chance to be better people. Over the course of the story, Carver uses both diction and description to explore themes in religion and morality. â€Å"Cathedral† depicts a husband and a wife as they prepare and entertain a friend of the wife. The husband, the narratorRead MoreRaymond Carver Cathedral Analysis985 Words   |  4 Pages In Raymond Carver’s story, â€Å"Cathedral,† we meet the nameless protagonist who is about to meet an old friend of his wife’s. The friend’s name is Robert and he is blind. In the beginning of the story, the narrator is uncomfortable with the idea of having someone with a disability, like Robert’s, in his home. He makes judgments about Robert and assumes that he is going to be like the blind people he has seen in the movies. We also learn the background information about how hife wife and Robert met

Monday, December 16, 2019

Hyundai Case Study Free Essays

Asia Paci? c Business Review Vol. 12, No. 2, 131–147, April 2006 Globalization and Employment Relations in the Korean Auto Industry: The Case of the Hyundai Motor Company in Korea, Canada and India RUSSELL D. We will write a custom essay sample on Hyundai Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now LANSBURY*, SEUNG-HO KWON** CHUNGSOK SUH†  *University of Sydney, **School of International Business, University of New South Wales, †  University of New South Wales ABSTRACT Examination is made of the complex interactions between globalization and employment relations as re? ected in the operations of the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) in Korea, Canada and India. After the closure of its short-lived attempt to manufacture cars for the North American market from Canada, the HMC ‘relaunched’ its globalization strategy in India in 1998. An examination of Hyundai’s experience in both countries suggests that employment relations is likely to continue to be an evolving blend of company-speci? c policies and locally-based practices. KEY WORDS : Globalization, management, unions, employment relations, production systems, Korea, Canada, India Introduction The effects of globalization on employee relations are widely debated. One view is that globalization has created pressures for convergence between different national settings, particularly as multinational enterprises extend their manufacturing and other operations across a variety of countries. Alternatively, it is argued that at national-level institutional arrangements play an important role in creating divergence between employment relations in different countries. As a consequence, globalization is not likely to lead to universal convergence of national patterns of employee relations. A third view rejects the simple convergence/divergence dichotomy and argues that there are complex interactions between global and national (or local) forces which shape the outcome of employee relations (Lansbury, 2002). The Korean automobile industry offers an opportunity to analyse this debate as it pursues a strategy of globalization and begins the process of expanding production beyond Korea and building plants in other parts of the world. Correspondence Address: Professor Russell Lansbury, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Email: r. lansbury@econ. usyd. edu. au 1360-2381 Print/1743-792X Online/06/020131-17 q 2006 Taylor Francis DOI: 10. 1080/13602380500532180 132 R. D. Lansbury et al. Globalization of the Korean auto industry has occurred in a very short period of time. It began as a repair industry for vehicles released during and after the Korean War in the early 1950s. The ? rst assembly plant in 1955 had an annual capacity of 1,500 units. When the Korean government launched the ? st Five Year Economic Development Plan in 1962, it introduced the ‘Automobile Industry Protection Law’ and began to promote the auto sector as a key element in emerging Korean manufacturing industry. However, the ? edging Korean auto sector experienced uncertainty and ? uctuations during the 1960s. The Saenara Motor Company was established in 1962 under a technical alliance with Nissan, but due to shortage of foreign exchange went bankrupt and was taken over by the Shinjin Motor Company which was allied to To yota. Shinjin assembled the Corona in a complete knock-down (CKD) form of production, whilst the Hyundai Motor Company began production of the Cortina in a technical alliance with Ford. The Korean government announced a ‘localization plan’ in 1970 under which the proportion of local content in passenger cars was supposed to increase from 38 per cent in 1970 to 100 per cent by 1972. However, the localization rate barely reached 50 per cent by 1972. A rapid period of growth occurred in the Korean auto industry during the period 1972– 82. The government announced ‘A Long Term Plan to Promote the Automobile Industry’ in 1974 which had three major targets: to achieve a localization rate of 85 per cent by 1975; a target of 80 per cent of domestic sales to be in the small car segments below engine capacity of 1500 cc; and an export target of 75,000 units by 1981. By the end of the 1970s, the Korean industry had three local producers: Hyundai, Kia (which had taken over Asia Motors) and Daewoo (which had absorbed Shinjin Motors). However, a global economic recession in late 1979 resulted in a severe excess capacity for manufactured vehicles and the Korean government announced a ‘Decree to consolidate the Automobile Industry’ in 1980. The plan required that small passenger cars would be produced solely by Hyundai and Daewoo; that Kia would concentrate on small to medium commercial vehicles; and that only buses and large trucks would be open to competition. This resulted in a substantial contraction of the industry and, by 1983, vehicle production had declined to the levels of 1979. However, production grew steadily again during the mid to late 1980s and expanded substantially in the 1990s (see Table 1). The 1980s and 1990s were a period of mass production as all three major companies built up their annual capacities and began aggressively to export Table 1. Korean automobile production and exports for selected years Production (000s) 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 Domestic Sales, % Exports, % 49 133 601 1,497 2,812 2,946 97. 5 81. 3 49. 1 73. 9 57. 0 49. 1 2. 5 18. 7 50. 9 26. 1 43. 0 50. 9 Source: Korean Auto Manufacturers Association, Statistical Reports (various years). Globalization Employment in Korea 133 Table 2. Comparison of production and sales by Korean and Japanese automotive companies for selected years (%) 1992 Korea Japan Overseas Production Domestic Production Domestic Sales Overseas Sales 3 97 Overseas Production Domestic Production Domestic Sales Overseas Sales 1995 4 96 25 75 73 27 61 39 35 65 55 45 64 36 Source: Li Song (1998) The Process of Globalization of the Korean Automobile Industry, Economics and Management Analysis, 18:1 utomobiles, particularly to North American and Europe. By the mid 1980s, more than 50 per cent of total production was exported. A comparison of production and sales by Korean and Japanese auto companies in the early to mid 1990s is shown in Table 2. In 1992, the size of the Japanese domestic market was ? ve times larger than that in Korea. During the early 1990s, however, the Japanese auto industry began to restructure in re sponse to economic circumstances. By 1995, Japanese companies produced about 35 per cent of its global production through subsidiaries outside Japan. Their globalization strategy concentrated on expanding overseas production and coordinating components suppliers among various global production centres. In 1995, the proportion of exports to total domestic production in Korea was similar to that in Japan. Yet the globalization of the Korean auto industry focused mainly on exporting domestically produced vehicles until the mid 1990s. Although overseas production began to increase in the late 1990s, the proportion was still rather small and most production continued to take place in Korea. The duration of the globalization process among Korean auto companies has been shorter than their Japanese counterparts. The Korean auto sector adopted a similar strategy to the Japanese of entering foreign markets at the lower cost end and then moving upwards. However, in contrast to the Japanese who began by exporting to less developed countries, Korean auto companies exported ? rst to the developed economies of the European Union and North America and then to less developed countries in Asia. The Korean companies have encountered dif? ulties in developing extensive supply chains and global materials management required for a mature global production system, which have been hallmarks of the successful Japanese auto companies. Most of the important management decisions are still made in the head of? ce in Korea and relocation of complete production systems overseas is still in the early stages. Furthermore, since the economic crisis of the late 1990s, Hyundai is the sole survivor of the three former major auto companies in Korea. Hence, the focus is on the experience of Hyundai as it seeks to ecome a global manufacturer with assembly plants in other countries. 134 R. D. Lansbury et al. Although there is an emerging literature about global automobile manufacturing by the USA, Japan and European companies, and their employee relations (see Boyer, 1998; Lewchuck et al. , 2001), little attention has been paid to Korean auto manufacturers which have also been seeking to establish an international presence (Hill and Lee, 1998; Kochan et al. , 1997; Kwon and O’Donnell, 2000). Examination is made of the experience of the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) in establishing overseas plants, as part of its globalization strategy. It seeks to answer the question: ‘to what extent has the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) applied Korean approaches to employee relations, or adapted to local custom and practices in their overseas plants? ’ HMC provides an interesting case as it has embarked on a long-term strategy of becoming one of the world’s largest auto companies by expanding into new markets and establishing plants outside Korea. In order to achieve this goal, HMC has sought to develop effective and appropriate employee relations strategies for managing its employees in its overseas plants. HMC’s ? rst venture abroad was in the mid 1980s, when it established an assembly plant in Quebec, Canada. However, this was an unsuccessful operation and HMC closed the plant in 1993. HMC began operations in India in 1998 in an attempt to re-establish its credentials as a global automobile manufacturer. A major issue, which it has confronted, is the management of labour in India, where unions have been very active in seeking membership and bargaining rights in the auto industry, particularly with foreign-owned companies. Methodology The primary research approach used in this study was ethnographic, and utilized comparative case studies of employment relations policies and practices of the Hyundai Motor Company in Korea and India. Similar methodologies have been used by Frenkel (1983), Kalleberg (1990) and Oliver and Wilkinson (1989). The researchers undertook several ? eld trips to visit Hyundai’s assembly plants in Chennai (India) as well as in Seoul (Korea), over a three year period from 1999 to 2001. Interviews were conducted with managers and workers in these plants using a semi-structured interview schedule. Documentary material was also collected and analysed from the Hyundai Company in both countries in order to compare the of? cial company policies on employment relations with the prevailing practices at the plant level. Given the fact that Hyundai had closed its assembly plant in Quebec in 1993, the researchers had to rely on interviews with former employees and managers, now located elsewhere in the Hyundai Motor Company, as well as previously published accounts. Fortunately, an extensive study of the Quebec plant had been undertaken and published by Gregory Teal (1995). In his study, Teal noted that ‘while there was a managerial discourse of participation and diffusion of power [in the Quebec plant] the gap between this discourse and the real diffusion of power was such that a sizable minority of employees did not comply with managerial objectives’ (1995: p. 85). Teal’s ethnographic study of the Hyundai assembly plant in Quebec provided a rich source of comparative data for the study of the Hyundai plant in Chennai. Globalization Employment in Korea 135 Background to the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) The Hyundai business group is one of Korea’s oldest and most successful familyowned conglomerates known as ‘chaebol’ (Steers et al. , 1989). In 1997, the Hyundai business group had over 60 subsidiary companies, more than 200,000 employees and accounted for approximately 18 per cent of Korea’s Gross Domestic Product. In 2000, the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) and its subsidiaries were forced to separate from the Hyundai group as a result of government policies designed to reduce the size and in? uence of the chaebols. The Hyundai conglomerate was established by its founder, Chung Ju-Yung, in 1946 as an auto repair shop. This small business expanded into a construction company in 1947 with the establishment of the Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company (HECC). During the Korean War (1950–53) with government support, the Hyundai business group expanded into a number of other areas of activity such as ship-building and heavy machinery. These are key industries which enabled Hyundai to diversify into related businesses, expand in size and maximize economies of scale and scope. The Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) began in 1968 as a complete knock down (CKD) assembler under an agreement with the Ford Motor Company. In 1976, HMC produced its ? rst originally-designed model, the Pony, using a low cost strategy with more than 90 per cent of its parts being sourced locally. Other new models followed and HMC entered the US market in 1986 with the competitively low-priced Excel. During the late 1980s, however, the international auto industry experienced considerable restructuring due to oversupply, excessive production capacity and intense global competition (see Womack et al. 1990). This gave rise to a number of strategic alliances between various auto companies via mergers and business partnerships. These were initiated to achieve economies of scale and to enhance the enlarged companies’ competitive positions in the international auto market. This was one reason whey HMC formed a strategic alliance with Mitsubishi in Canada. Studies of the Korean chaebol have tended to describe them as having similar characteristics to the zaibatsu in pre Second World War Japan: large, diversi? ed, usually family-owned and managed conglomerates (Amsden, 1989). The Japanese colonization of Korea, which lasted from the early 1900s to the end of the Second World War, resulted in the establishment of a number of institutions and practices derived from Japan and which in? uenced the way in which companies were developed and managed. The chaebol, like the zaibatsu, have used a variety of means to foster worker identi? cation with and dependence on the company (Janelli Yim, 1993). Hyundai, for example, used the dormitory system (originally established by Japanese enterprises in the textile industry) to allow close supervision and control over predominantly young workers (Cho, 1999). This was accompanied by hiring and training schemes as well as paternalistic welfare systems to foster dependency among the workers. Most chaebol also used the ‘moral persuasion’ of the founder to elicit worker compliance by promoting the concept that the good of the nation was based on the company’s performance. The founder of Hyundai, Chung Ju-Yung, regularly exhorted his employees to embrace the ‘Hyundai spirit’. Independent unions were not tolerated and were banned by the government until the late 1980s (Kearney, 1991). Yet worker dissatisfaction with both the paternalism of the chaebol and authoritarianism of the state gradually built up to breaking point and contributed 136 R. D. Lansbury et al. to major industrial disputes and civil unrest resulting in the ‘democratization’ of Korea in 1987 (Choi, 1989; Ogle, 1990). Development of employment relations policies and practices at HMC were strongly in? uenced by the business partnership with the Mitsubishi Motor Company (MMC) which involved not only technical cooperation but also management development. MMC was actively involved in the design of the ? st full automobile manufacturing systems at HMC. MMC made a strategic investment in HMC equal to 10 per cent of HMC’s total capitalization. MMC also entered into an enhanced technological cooperation agreement to supply various parts such as engines, axles and chassis components. The ? rst model which HMC developed was based on the Mitsubishi Lancer. Elements of MMC’s system o f labour management approach were utilized by HMC in order to enhance productivity and reduce production costs. These included quality control techniques and job design which sought to more effectively utilize workers. Professional engineers became central to the control of production operations and supervisors were given strict control over workers on the assembly-line. The human resource policies practised by HMC during its formative stage comprised two basic characteristics. First, a strict dual labour market created a division between managerial and production workers. HMC applied different selection criteria for each of these groups of employees. Second, a seniority system of promotion was developed in order to strengthen the hierarchical structure of the internal labour market and to educe short-term labour turnover. Years of service was an important criteria for wage increases and promotion. As HMC expanded its production and hired more employees, however, it adopted what was termed an ‘Open Recruitment System’ (ORS) in an attempt to attract more university graduates and develop a professional management hierarchy. The ORS was also used to introduce more formal systems of recrui tment for production workers which would enhance the quality of recruits to the production area. However, the dual labour market system remained and was even strengthened within HMC. Table 3 summarizes the criteria by which management and production employees were recruited. However, HMC argued that their approach to recruitment was transformed from one which relied on personal contracts or connections to one which was based on objective selection criteria. As Kwon and O’Donnell (1999; 2000) have shown, workers in HMC appeared to be more compliant than those in other parts of the Hyundai group until the mid 1980s. Part of the explanation may be the relatively secure employment conditions Table 3. Recruitment practices at the Hyundai Motor Company during the 1990s Management employees Responsibility Target Groups Assessment Process Production employees Group planning of? ce University graduates Written exam (e. g. language skills) University degree Interviews by senior management and personnel management Personnel department at plant level High School leavers Test for relevant skills High School results Interviews by department head and personnel staff Globalization Employment in Korea 137 at HMC, although some have argued that HMC workers witnessed the failure of strikes elsewhere and were more acquiescent about their conditions of employment (Bae, 1987). Furthermore, management in HMC and the Hyundai Heavy Industry group also used various means to oppose the rise of an independent union movement, including physical violence, intimidation and the establishment of complaint in company unions. However, following reforms to labour legislation in the 1990s, HMC was forced to negotiate with unions over wages and conditions. The HMC trade union also became a central force in the formation of the KCTU as the national peak council for the independent trade union movement. One of the main policy responses by HMC to the emergence of a more militant workforce and trade union movement during the 1980s was the implementation of an extensive welfare system. Welfare expenditure by HMC increased from 286 billion won in 1986 to 857 billion won in 1990. Welfare bene? ts which had been limited to management were extended to production workers in the late 1980s. Various cultural programmes were organized in conjunction with training programmes and other activities in an attempt to build a ‘unitarist’ philosophy of loyalty to the ? m and reduce the anti-management sentiments of many workers. Unions made the improvement of welfare systems a major bargaining issue, particularly in the context of an inadequate state welfare system in Korea. The unions achieved the establishment of joint project teams with management to oversee a range of welfare programmes, such as the Employee Housing Construction Implementation Committee to build houses for workers. Sc holarships were also obtained for children of workers by the unions in negotiation with management. Wages were the subject of vigorous negotiation between unions and management rom the late 1980s onwards. Wages at HMC increased by 20 per cent in 1987, 30 per cent in 1988 and 28 per cent in 1989 compared with only 6 per cent between 1982 and 1986. It was not only the amount of wages which were the subject of bargaining with the unions but also the wage structure at HMC. As shown in Table 4, the unions achieved increased allowances, bonuses and superannuation paid by HMC to its members. Hence unions were able to broaden the range of issues for negotiation with HMC from the late1980s and made considerable gains during the 1990s. In terms of the broad range of human resource policies and practices, however, HMC has continued to use various means in an effort to promote a convergence Table 4. The structure of remuneration at the Hyundai Motor Company during the 1990s Types of Remuneration Components Monthly wages Normal ? xed wage Other ? xed and variable allowances Performance-based pay Productivity-related pay Bonuses Superannuation Value-added remuneration Other forms of remuneration 138 R. D. Lansbury et al. Table 5. Comparison between employment relations practices adopted by the Hyundai Motor Company in the three plants in Korea, Canada and India Human resource policies and practices Korea Canada India Selection of employees based on performance-related criteria Training programmes which reinforce company norms such as loyalty and team spirit Employee involvement in some aspects of decision-making at plant level Industrial relations Successful avoidance of collective agreements with unions Flexible wages system linked to productivity and/or performance criteria Internal Labour Market Arrangements High status differentiation between workers and managers at plant level Opportunities for promotion from the shop ? or to higher level positions within the plant Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No of interests between employees and management, while seeking to maintain control and authority over the workforce. The HMC union has been able to resist some of the management’s initiatives to change wages and working conditions, but HMC continues to control the basis on which selection and tra ining of employees is conducted and there is still a strong degree of status differentiation between management and workforce. This is re? cted in large differences between wages, bene? ts and conditions of work between HMC employees at the shop ? oor level compared with those in the ranks of management. Some key employment relations practices are set out in Table 5 and a comparison is made between those that prevail in Korea compared with plants in Canada and India. Hyundai’s Experience in Canada In cooperation with Mitsubishi, HMC opened its ? rst overseas plant in Quebec, Canada, in 1985, in order to assemble the medium-sized front wheel drive Sonata model. The objective was to pro? from HMC’s initial success in Canada in 1984, with the Pony, when HMC became the largest auto importer in the country. Sales to Canada accounted for 30 per cent of HMC’s total production that year. By establishing a presence in North America, HMC sought to boost its sales and avoi d the imposition of import quotas. HMC acquired a 400 acre green? eld site near the Canadian town of Bromont in Quebec for the token payment of one Canadian dollar and received $Canadian 110 million in grants from the Canadian federal and provincial governments as part of HMC’s total investment of $Canadian 325 million. In addition, the Quebec Department of Labour gave a $Canadian 7. 3 million grant to HMC to assist with training the workforce over a three year period. HMC built both a paint and a press shop to increase North American content (an important criterion for exporting to the USA) as well as because of problems in gaining components from Korea due to labour problems Globalization Employment in Korea 139 and strikes at HMC’s Ulsan plant. Yet, when the plant was ? ally closed in 1993, one of the major contributing factors was ascribed to HMC’s failure to manage successfully relations with its Canadian managers and employees (Teal, 1995). An analysis of HMC’s experience in Canada offers some useful insights into the way in which the company sought to manage its workforce in North America. This is examined in regard to two key areas: human resource and industrial relations policies and practices. The data on which the account Hyundai’s experience in Canada is base d is from a study of the Quebec plant by Teal (1995). More information was collected from HMC employees who had worked in the Canadian plant. Human Resource Policies and Practices The hiring policy of HMC in Canada was based on selecting employees who would identify with the company and its objectives. The selection process was lengthy and complex, with candidates spending four days being interviewed, tested for hand– eye coordination and subjected to personality tests. The key selection criteria for prospective employees were that they would be willing and able to do repetitive, monotonous work on an assembly line, as well as work in a team. The company explicitly sought younger workers, around 22 years of age, with little or no experience in the auto industry. Hyundai sought to socialize new employees in a way that promoted identi? cation with the company. All production workers were called ‘technicians’ and each employee was referred to as a ‘member’. All company employees wore the same uniform, irrespective of whether they were managers or shop-? oor workers. There was one cafeteria and one parking lot for all Hyundai employees. There was a wide range of sports and leisure activities designed to build team spirit and company ethic among all employees. The training programmes for new employees emphasized loyalty, motivation and team spirit. Some employees were sent to Hyundai’s production centre in Ulsan, South Korea. However, the organization of team work in the Quebec plant was different from Ulsan. The work teams in Canada were less hierarchical and authoritarian than in Korea, team members were encouraged to discuss any problems and there appeared to be greater job rotation within the teams. There was also a ‘Direct Communication System’ in the Quebec plant which was not present in Ulsan. Each team elected its own representative to a departmental committee. Team representatives from each department met regularly, with management playing an observer role at most meetings. There was also a health and safety committee to which workers elected their own representatives. During 1991 there were more than 50 meetings of Direct Communication committees at which more than 400 topics were discussed. Yet management found it dif? ult to satisfy the demands and expectations among employees. In 1991 there were nearly 160 complaints by workers concerning health and safety issues, of which only 100 were resolved. Industrial Relations A major concern of HMC was to avoid unionization of the plant in Quebec. The Canadian Auto Workers Union (CAWU) devoted considerable organizational 140 R. D. Lansbury et al. and ? nancial resources to attempting to organize the plant, without s uccess, although by the time the plant closed in 1993, the union claimed to have achieved a growing level of support among the workforce. While much of the emphasis by Hyundai management was on more subtle means of union avoidance, by developing strong identi? cation of workers with the company, a number of employees who were thought to be sympathetic to or organizing on behalf of the union were suspended, transferred or dismissed. The union brought cases of alleged unfair dismissal before the Quebec Government Labour Commission and was successful in achieving an out-of-court settlement for a worker who had been dismissed in 1990. However, the union did not succeed in gaining a collective bargaining agreement to cover workers at the site. One of the devices used to prevent unionization of the plant was the formation of a pro-company, anti-union committee among the employees called ‘the Silent Majority’. It was formed in 1991 to dissuade employees from joining the union. The committee distributed pamphlets which alleged that if the plant became unionized, workers would lose money in union dues and their jobs would be insecure. The committee claimed that while workers were being laid off in other Canadian plants, which were unionized, Hyundai had hired new employees, opened a press shop and provided a high degree of job security. It also charged that the union was more concerned with protecting the jobs of workers in the ‘big three’ auto plants in Ontario where it had a large membership, rather than at the Hyundai plant. But faced with the depressed economic climate in Quebec and the disappointing sales of the Hyundai Sonata in Canada and the USA, Hyundai introduced a reduced work week for all employees and ? ally shut the plant in September 1993. Internal Labour Market Arrangements Distinctions between managerial and production workers were minimized in terms of status differentials within the plant (such as dining facilities), and workers were encouraged to participate in decision-making at the level of team or work group. Yet the work itself remained organized along Taylorist principles, wit h a strong division of tasks and demarcations between various job functions. Workers complained that even though they were supposed to be involved in a team-based approach to management, they were subject to ‘speed-up’ and work intensi? ation without consultation. They also claimed that Hyundai actively discouraged union membership by workers and refused to engage in collective bargaining. Hence, employee involvement in decision-making was highly restricted and had little impact on the internal labour market arrangements. Yet there existed greater opportunities for promotion of workers in production and other functions to higher level positions in the Canadian plant compared with similar plants in Korea and India. Experience of Hyundai Motor Company in India In 1996, ? ve years after the closure of the Quebec plant, HMC established a 100 per cent owned subsidiary, the Hyundai Motor Company of India (HMI), Globalization Employment in Korea 141 to manufacture cars in India. It represented an investment of more than US$ 450 million. Construction of a plant with the capacity to produce 120,000 passenger cars per year was completed in Chennai, Southern India, in 1999. By May 2000, the Chennai plant was producing 100,000 vehicles a year and had captured 14 per cent of the Indian market. HMI produced two models in Chennai: Santro (999 cc) and Accent (1,499 cc), both of which achieved approximately one quarter of their respective market segments during the ? rst four months of 2000. HMI began its operation in Chennai with a workforce of 1,400 operating in a one shift production system in October 1998. By January 2001, the workforce had increased to 3,000 workers and a three-shift operation. It had become one of the fastest growing auto manufacturers in India and shared the lead with Ford of India in its respective market segments. It is dif? ult to make a direct comparison between Chennai and the Quebec plant as Chennai was larger and produced two models instead of one. Nevertheless, HMI followed some policies similar to both the Korean and Canadian plants and also implemented HR policies and practices which emphasized selection procedures and training programmes designed to ensure that new employees are strongly integrated with the organization. However, due to lower labour costs in India, there was more reliance on labour-intensive methods and less use of automation than in Canada or Korean plants. Given the lower levels of education and skill among the Indian workforce, compared with Korea or Canada, there was a much greater presence of Korean managers and technical advisers in Chennai, particularly during the ? rst year of operation. The lines of demarcation between different segments of the workforce were also greater in the Indian plant and there was a more hierarchical structure in the Indian company. Some of these practices re? ected local norms in Indian work culture and industry. The experience of the Hyundai Motor Company in India is analysed with regard to three areas: human resource policies and practices, industrial relations and the internal labour market arrangements. Human Resource Policies and Practices HMI used a variety of HR policies and procedures to align the attitudes of its employees with the corporate culture. Training programmes within HMI re? ected the paternalistic nature within the company and emphasized the development of a strong work ethic among the employees. New recruits were given two-day basic orientation training before being allocated to a speci? c department. Most of the initial work skills are taught on the production line. There followed a job rotation programme which exposed workers to other parts of the plant operations. As Chennai is a mass production plant, most of the jobs were fragmented into relatively simple, repetitive tasks and there was a highly detailed division of labour. Much of the training beyond basic skills development was used to promote employee loyalty and develop harmony at the workplace in order to avoid internal con? ict. Workers were also encouraged to participate in productivity campaigns, employee suggestion schemes and quality control systems. There was a Supervisor Development Programme to enhance the skills of ? rst line managers. At executive level, there was a Management Development Programme to improve 142 R. D. Lansbury et al. the capacity of managers to think strategically, manage their time effectively and improve work methods and quality. The majority of workers at the Chennai plant were employed at trainee level for the ? rst three years and it was anticipated that some of these would leave the company after three years (when the traineeship ended) in search of better wages and conditions. By maintaining high turnover at this level, HMI could keep wages down and retain a group of low-paid trainees who were not permitted to join unions and could provide a ‘buffer’ should demand fall and the workforce need to be quickly reduced. In effect, the trainee position was a de facto short-term contract job, although some workers did receive promotion at the end of the trainee period. Nevertheless, promotion procedures were slow and were aimed at cost minimization, although employees with exceptional performance could receive rapid promotion. In general, it could take up to 20 years or more for production workers to rise to the highest level in their employment structure. There was a system of performance appraisal which varied according to the level of the position. When applied to the non-executive groups the emphasis of the appraisal system was on behavioural criteria such as discipline, attitudes to work, cooperation, punctuality and attendance. The system led to some con? icts between production workers and management, although it was supposed to enhance competition between workers to achieve the highest performance ratings. Wages policy was the most critical factor in enabling HMI to achieve a ‘cost effective’ approach to labour management. HMI’s goal was to minimize labour costs while providing management with considerable ? exibility to link allowances to productivity improvements. The total wage package comprised four key elements: a base level amount, a cost of living component, house rental allowance, a ? exibility allowance and a mixture of sundry other minor components (including travel, children’s education, provident fund etc. ). There was considerable variation in the ratio of different components depending on an individual’s position in the hierarchy. Hence, the base component of total salary varied from 60 per cent for managers to 30 per cent for production workers. According to HMI, this system helped to promote employee loyalty to the company. The wages of HMI employees were adjusted annually through increments paid in April and the wage structure was reviewed every three years. During 2000, HMI came under pressure from its workforce to increase wages, and a 20 per cent increase was granted to trainees and junior technicians. The wage levels for trainees and junior technical employees at HMI compared favourably with other multinational auto companies in the same area, but were superior to Indian companies in the auto components sector. However, by having the vast majority of their employees at trainee level, HMI was able to contain its wage costs. The wages and salaries differentials between executive and non-executive employees remained fairly constant over the ? rst few years of HMI’s operation in Chennai, with executives receiving approximately six times that of production workers. However, it was dif? ult to gain accurate information about senior executive salaries paid by HMI. Anecdotal evidence from HMI and other automobile producers in India suggested that the foreign-owned companies shared information about wage Globalization Employment in Korea 143 levels and generally maintained comparability so that they were not competing against each other in this regard. Hence, the variations between multinational auto companies operating within the Chennai area were minimal. However, there were signi? cant wage differences between the component suppliers (mainly local Indian ? ms) and the foreign-owned assembly companies. Furthermore, wage levels in the Chennai area were generally lower than those in the northern industrial zones of India as they had been industrialized for less time and were still ‘catching up’ to their northern counterparts. Industrial Relations HMI has been strongly in? uenced by the experience of HMC in Korea. From the mid 1980s, with the emergence of militant unionism, HMC experienced considerable industrial con? ict at its plants in Korea. There was a great deal of external intervention in an attempt to resolve con? cts at HMC, with varying degrees of success. Experience in Korea conditioned attitudes among the senior managers at HMI. One of the principal reasons why HMC chose to locate its plants near Chennai in the south of India, was that unions were not as well organized as in some other parts of India. The trade union movement is well established in India and is closely linked with socialist politics. The Indian Industrial Relations Act provides a range of rights for workers and unions. The Act guarantees freedom of association and allows for multiple unions in workplaces. It also seeks to facilitate third party intervention in the workplace to resolve industrial disputes. In 2000, trade unions were organized in 24 of the 28 major car manufacturers in India, although not in foreign-owned or joint ventures, including Ford, Volvo, Toyota and HMI. There were two major strikes in the auto sector during the late 1990s. One was a strike over wages and compensation issues at the Ascot-Faridabad plant and lasted 70 days. The other was at Hindustan Motors over factory conditions and wages and was 30 days in duration (Bhaktavatsala, 1992). During the ? st two years of HMI’s operations in India, there were no successful organizing efforts by unions or industrial disputes at the Chennai plant. Yet, as the plant became more established and HMI’s market share and pro? tability increased, production workers increasingly raised complaints about labour intensi? cation, low wages and limited opportunities for promotion. However, as the trainee workers comp rise half of the workforce at HMI, and were not permitted to join a union or participate in industrial disputes, HMI management was able to resist union pressures. Another source of tension within the Chennai plant occurred between Korean managers dispatched to India from HMC in Korea, and local Indian management. An important contributing factor related to the management style displayed by some of the Koreans which the Indians felt was unsympathetic to prevailing customs and practices in India. They complained that their Korean counterparts frequently communicated with each other in the Korean language which excluded Indians from the decision-making process. For their part, a number of Korean managers claimed that the Indians lacked a strong work ethic and therefore had to be more strictly supervised in order to achieve the required levels of productivity. 144 R. D. Lansbury et al. The Koreans also argued that the caste system interfered with the ef? cient operation of the plant because some Indian workers were appointed by Indian managers to positions in accordance with their caste position rather than on the basis of merit. The Indian management system was regarded as unduly paternalistic by some of the Korean managers. HMI established a Works Committee, with the objective of resolving con? icts and differences at the workplace without involving unions. The works committee comprised equal representation from both management and production workers. The Committee met monthly and provided a forum in which disagreements over wages and conditions could be discussed and resolved. However, in the absence of a trade union, employees had little bargaining power in regard to management and the Committee had no means of enforcing its decisions. HMI management tended to use the Committee as a means for disseminating its policies among the workforce. The Committee did not have any jurisdiction to set wages or working conditions. While HMI has remained union-free and had not experienced any major industrial dispute, strikes occurred among component suppliers which were Korean joint ventures with HMI, including Donghee, Pyungbuang, Hwasung and Samrib. The disputes concerned wages, job security and welfare issues. The strikes had adverse effects on HMI’s production ef? ciency as many of the companies had a monopoly supplier relationship with HMI. The resolution of these disputes often required direct intervention by HMI. Internal Labour Market Arrangements From the initial establishment of the Chennai plant, HMI adopted a dual internal labour market, which differentiated between managerial and production employees in relation to wages, promotion and welfare facilities. Initially, there were two classes of employees: executive and non-executive. In the executive group there were 11 categories while in the non-executive group there were 14 positions. Within the ? rst year of production, however, the total number of employees increased from 1,503 to 2,320 and there was pressure from the workforce to provide greater wage differentials based on quali? ations. Accordingly, the number of categories in the non-executive ranks was increased from 14 to 18 and two new classi? cations of junior engineer were introduced. The expansion in the number of layers within the non-executive group reduced some of the discontent about the limited status differentials in the organizational hierarchy. However, HMI placed restrictions on the number of promotion s of workers to higher level categories. This is an important factor in the management of labour within the plant because, as mentioned previously, trainees have only temporary employment status for the ? st three years and are not permitted to join unions. Hence, their opportunities to gain advancement are limited. During the ? rst year of operation, almost all senior decision-making positions at HMI were held by Koreans dispatched from HMC. The Korean managers not only were heads of division, with responsibility for all key activities in HMI, but also some were placed at operational level to provide support and advice to middle level Indian managers and to coordinate management activities. As the number Globalization Employment in Korea 145 of total employees increased during the ? rst two years of operation, the ratio of Koreans to Indians in the plant changed from 1:19 to 1:46. However, most key roles remained under the control of Koreans. In the production division, the ratio of Koreans to Indians underwent more signi? cant change, from a ratio of 1:26 in 1998 to 1:172 in 2000. This was in keeping with HMI’s policy of becoming less reliant on Korean managers at plant level. Discussion The comparison of HMC’s operations in three countries demonstrates that there are complex interactions between globalization pressures towards a uniform approach to employment relations across various countries and divergent tendencies at the local level in each country. Although HMC sought to carefully select employers at its plant in Canada who would identify with the company’s objectives and follow its procedures, the Canadian workers were willing to challenge management decisions and to exercise their rights on issues such as health and safety. This was despite the fact that the Canadian Auto Workers Union was unsuccessful in gaining collective bargaining coverage of the Bromont plant. Although HMC were able to remain non-union, they had a divided workforce and were not able to implement the full range of Hyundai-style human resource policies and practices as planned. Although the closure of the Canadian operation was primarily due to disappointing sales of the Sonata model, poor employee relations were also a contributing factor to Hyundai’s failure in Canada. The Indian operations marked an important attempt by Hyundai to relaunch its globalization strategy and demonstrate that it could successfully manufacture and sell overseas-made Hyundai vehicles outside Korea. The employee relations practices which Hyundai implemented in India were more like ‘traditional’ Korean approaches and appeared to represent a ‘retreat’ from some of the more ‘progressive’ ideas which were attempted in Canada – such as a ? atter hierarchical structure and greater employee participation in decision-making (albeit limited in scope). But the Indian plant was more labour intensive and had lower labour costs, which is similar to the earlier stages of auto production in Korea. Unlike the current situation in Korea, where HMC is required to negotiate with the union movement (due to both its organizational strength and changes in legislation), Hyundai has so far been able to avoid unionization in India. It remains to be seen whether the widespread nature of unionization in the Indian auto industry and political pressures in India may force Hyundai to abandon its policy of union avoidance. An alternative strategy, pursued by some other foreign auto companies in India has been to recognize or foster enterprise unions, which may be more cooperative than industry-wide unions. Implications As has been noted in other studies of auto companies, which established transplants outside their home country, there is a strong tendency towards ‘hybridization’ both in terms of production methods as well as employment relations. This has been observed in the case of Japanese companies which have 146 R. D. Lansbury et al. established plants in the United States (see Cutcher-Gershenfeld et al. 1998), but it has also occurred with US auto companies in Canada (Lewchuck et al. , 2001) and European auto companies which have opened plants in other parts of the world (see Boyer et al. , 1998). It would appear, from the current study, that a similar tendency is occurring within the Hyundai Motor Company as they seek to re-start their overseas production activities in India. A more diversi? ed employee relations strategy, which takes into account the demands of local employees and their unions, may be required if Hyundai is to continue to develop an effective global production system. For its global ambitions to be realized, Hyundai will require a much greater proportion of its manufacturing to be undertaken outside Korea, the development of global supply chains and global coordination of production, marketing and technology development. The experience of Hyundai in Canada and India suggests that employee relations are likely to be an evolving blend of company-speci? c policies and locally-based practices, depending on the context in which Hyundai is operating. Conclusions The experience of the Hyundai Motor Company in India illustrates the complexity of the impact of globalization strategies on employment relations. It supports the hypothesis that there are dynamic interactions between global and local forces, which shape employment relations when a multinational enterprise establishes a production facility in a country outside its home base. Hyundai has applied some of its human resources policies from Korea to India, such as training programmes to reinforce employee loyalty to the company, but it has provided fewer opportunities for employees to be promoted from the shop ? or to higher-level positions within the plant. This has caused resentment among some of the Indian employees who feel that they have limited career prospects in the company. Hyundai has also successfully avoided unionization despite the fact that unions have collective agreements with most local automobile producers in India. It remains to be seen whether the Indian unions will be able to apply pressure successfully to the company to bargain collectively or persuade the government to require Hyundai to negotiate with the union over the wages and conditions of its employees. Acknowledgements The authors wish to acknowledge the Australian Research Council (ARC) for their award of an ARC Discovery Grant for this research project and the helpful comments of the reviewers and editors. References Amsden, A. (1989) Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization (New York: Oxford University Press). Bae, K. H. (1987) Automobile Workers in Korea (Seoul: Seoul National University Press). Bhaktavatsala, R. C. (1992) The Indian automobile industry: patterns of expansion, entry and performance, Management, Journal, 5(2), pp. 7– 111. Globalization Employment in Korea 147 Boyer, R. (1998) Hybridization and models of production: Geography, history and theory, in: R. Boyer, E. Cherron, U. Jurgens S. Tolliday (Eds) Between Imitation and Innovation: The Transfer and Hybridization of Production Models in the International Automobile Industry (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Cho, H. J. (1999) The employment adjustment of Hyundai Motor Company: a research focus on corporate-level labour relations, Korean Journal of Labour Studies, 5(1), pp. 63–96 (in Korean). Choi, J. 1989) Labour and the Authoritarian State: Labour Unions in South Korean Manufacturing Industries (Seoul: Korea University Press). Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J. et al. (1998) Knowledge-Driven Work: Unexpected Lessons from Japanese and United States Work Practices (New York: Oxford University Press). Frenkel, S. (1993) Workplace relations in the global corporation, in: S. Frenkel J. Harrod (Eds) Industrialization and Labour Relations, pp. 37–63 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell ILR Press). Hill, R. C. Lee, Y. C. (1998) Japanese multinationals in East Asian development: the case of the auto industry, in: L. Sklair (Ed. ) Capitalism and Development (London: Routledge). Janelli, R. Yim, D. (1993) Making Capitalism: the Social and Cultural Construction of a Korean Conglomerate (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press). Kalleberg, A. (1990) The comparative study of business organizations and their employees, in: C. Calhoun (Ed. ) Comparative Social Research: A Research Annual, pp. 153– 175 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press). Kearney, R. P. (1991) Warrior Worker: History and Challenge of South Korea’s Economic Miracle (New York: Henry Holt Coy). Kochan, T. A. , Lansbury, R. D. MacDuf? e, J. P. 1997) After Lean Production: Evolving Employment Relations in the World Auto Industry (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press). Kwon, S. H. O’Donnell, M. (1999) Repression and Struggle: the State, the Chaebol and the Independent Trade Unions in South Korea, Journal of Industrial Relations, 41(2), pp. 272– 293. Kwon, S. H. O’Donnell, M. (2000) The Chaebol and Labour in Korea ( London: Routledge). Lansbury, R. D. (2002) The impact of globalization on employment relations: the automobile and banking industries in Australia and Korea, The Bulletin of Comparative Labour Relations, 45, pp. –16. Lewchuck, W. , Stewart, P. Yates, C. (2001) Quality of worklife in the automobile industry: A Canada–UK comparative study, New Technology, Work and Employment, 16(2), pp. 72– 87. Ogle, G. E. (1990) South Korea: Dissent within the Economic Miracle (London: Zed Books). Oliver, N. Wilkinson, B. (1989) Japanese manufacturing techniques and personnel and industrial relations practices in Britain: Evidence and implications, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 27(1), pp. 73– 91. Song, L. 1998) The process of globalization of the Korean automobile industry, Economic and Management Analysis, 18(1), pp. 20–35. Steers, R. M. , Shin, Y. K. Ungson, R. (1989) The Chaebol: Korea’s New Industrial Relations Might (New York: Harper Row). Teal, G. (1995) Korean management, corporate culture and systems of labour control between South Korea and North America, Culture, 15(2), pp. 85–103. Womack, J. P. , Jones, D. T. Roos, D. (1990) The Machine that Changed the World (New York: Macmillan). How to cite Hyundai Case Study, Free Case study samples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Animal Essay Example For Students

Animal Essay CellsMy cell is the animal cell It really depends on which cell you are talking about different cells do different things. Such as skin cells. They form a barrieron the outside of the body which protects the organs and tissues inside. Itstops them getting damaged by bumps and knocks and also prevents bacteria andviruses from getting into your body. The cells structure, contains the CellMembrane keeping the cell together and controlling what substances go in andout, Cytoplasm is the water-rich matrix within a cell that contains andsurrounds the other cell contents. Nucleolus is a small region that is made upof RNA and protiens, it also produces ribosomes. Mitochondria burns foodmolecules to release energy. This energy is used by cells to do work. This workmay be building new molecules which have a particular function in the body, orit may be to produce movement. Ribosomes are often attached along the length ofthe ER. These manufacture proteins which pass into the inner part of the tubethey might have sugars of fats added and they fold up into the shape they needto be to carry out their function. Rough and Smoth ER. is the sythesis ofproteins or transportation materials through the cell Rough ER is rought becauseribosomes are stuck to its surface which gies it a rough apperance. New protiensare inserted into the rougth ER there they may be chenimcaly modified. theSmooth ER are sacks that look smooth and are not studded in which chemicals andenzymes are stored. Goli Apparatus modifies and collects and distributesmolecules made at one end of the cell and used in another. Lysosomes are bags ofdestructive enzymes which are produced by the cell to break down complexmolecules. Vacuoles are sack that store water,salts, proteins andcarbohydrates.Centriole is a structure that comains microtubule protein calledtubulin. cytoskeloten is a web of fibres which provide a sort of scaffolding forthe cell, keepings its shape and supporting the organelles which are inside.Cell Wall help protect the the cell from what is outside of the cell and alsosupports the cell. I hoped you learned alot about the animal cell I enjoyedlearning about it and wish that I could of spent more time on the project and itis also amazing that we started life being no bigger than a period on thisreport. And that how important cells are to our life.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Marketing Plan Proposal for Blancpain Brand

Executive Summary Blancpain is well recognized watch-making brand that has dominated this market for approximately 400 years. Being part of the influential swatch group, the company has always pride itself with the ability to uniquely create mechanical watches. However, changes in both the internal and external business operating environment has called for marketing strategy adjustments.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Marketing Plan Proposal for Blancpain Brand specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore after successful analysis of the current market situation, this report suggests that the brand should target a single market segment. The decision to singularly focus on high-end consumer was arrived through the application of demographic segmentation. Since the above group of customer are very specific in what they desire, a concentrated target strategy is proposed. This strategy allows Blancpain to focus m ore on the need of the consumer while at the same time utilizing the limited resource. Also very important to note is that all promotion effort should be directed towards fostering great client relationship. Therefore sufficient effort should be placed on public relationship. Finally at all time Blackpain should act as a quality leader. Unique product feature, rich history and heritage, high craftsmanship, are some of the factors marketers of this Brand should use to justify the high prices. Introduction Blancpain is global reputable brand that was founded by Jehan-Jaques in 1735. The company that is own by the Swatch group, a respected industry leader, pride itself with an experience of about 400 years in creating mechanically watches (Blancpain). However, technology has enabled creation of gadget such as cell phones and laptops which already have in-built clocks. Similarly, electronically made watches are considered cheaper and accurate in telling. As result consumers no longer ne ed to buy additional time telling machines. However, the need to create a desirable status quo has lead to a certain group of consumers searching for a status symbol. Wristwatch is one of gadget that is proving to satisfy this need (Bewes Andreasen 17). If Blancpain is to retain its market position, it has to find ways appealing to this consumer need. Current Market Situation A marketing audit was conducted to establish the situation currently in the market. Important tools of analysis and auditing such as SWOT and PESTLE were employed. External (Macro) Environment SWOT is an acronym of Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats.Analysis of opportunities and threats shed some light on the external business operating environment. Similarly, the understanding of this environment was further enhanced by conducting the PESTLE analysis. A pestle analysis involves scrutinizing the external environment paying particular attention to the Political, External, Social, Technology, Legal an d finally Environmental factors (Kats Shapiro 60).Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Political Factors Political development affecting the watch-making industry particularly wrist watch can act either as threats or opportunities. Blancpain produces wrist watches with a global appeal. The brand is especially popular in Russia, Asian, USA and other European markets (Blancpain). Therefore, any political aspect in these markets that is affecting the performance of the company is considered. After the Global financial crisis, Governments were pressurize by citizens to put strict regulations that would check the personal spending habits of executives and other prominent persons holding public offices. This in turn has affected the uptake of luxury goods in markets such as the USA (Bewes Andreasen 16). Although Blancpain is yet to be adversely affected, if the trend continues there is a potential threat of losing out on sales volume. On the other side, Asian markets were not adversely affected and therefore have been providing diversifying opportunity. The political governance and structure of China for instance did not only insulate the country from the adverse effect of the crisis but also ensured economic growth. Currently, the country’s economy is the second largest in the world. As result, the purchasing power of the consumers has increased. The country is now an important wrist watch export destination as indicated by figures from the Swatch group. To be precise, export sale of wristwatch in the country increased by 58.8 %(Bewes Andreasen 18). However, allegation of political interference and manipulation of the Chinese yen act as threat (Bewes Andreasen 18). This factor coupled with another threat of increase competition from china domestic watch makers could result in making Blancpain less competitive. Nonetheless, Blancpain can still ca pitalize on the opportunity created by political goodwill in Russia. The current prime minister is recognized for setting fashion trend when it comes to wearing of wristwatch (Blancpain). Evidently he prefers Blancpain brand and as result the brand is experiencing sufficient demand in this region. Another important fact is that this nation is somewhat shielded from the pressure associated with luxury spending. Despite 17% of the citizen living below the poverty line, luxury spending on watches is more acceptable especially when compared with the USA and other European countries (Bewes Andreasen 23) Economical Factors A strong economy creates an opportunity for the brand while a weak economy poses potential threats. As mentioned earlier, the global financial crisis has been the greatest challenge to luxury makers. Even without government interventions, most consumers opted to abandon their extravagant spending.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Marketing Pl an Proposal for Blancpain Brand specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The influential Swiss watch industry, which more often than not act as a global indicator of the situation at hand, experience a 22.3% drop in sales revenue. However currently there have been some sign of recovery, but still things have not returned to way they used to be prior to the crisis (Bewes Andreasen 33) Additionally, the current Europe financial crisis poses a significant threat. Even though the most affected countries are Spain, Greece, Ireland and Portuguese, there are fears that it might spill over to other European zones. Possibly it might eventually destabilize the frail global economy. Even the Asian continent and particularly China has shown some signs of being susceptible to this particular crisis. Some of its market indices lost some points due to the release of negative news. Consumers are now more caution and therefore such news result in reduced spe nding (Bewes Andreasen 38) The strengthening Swiss currency is also another threat that is affecting negatively the sale revenue. Since most transactions are transacted in US dollar, a stronger Swiss Franc is a major disadvantage. However, the brand has the opportunity of riding on the reputation of Switzerland as a global and almost monopoly in making luxury watches. The economic policies, such as the monetary and fiscal policies are very conducive. A good example is the tax policies which is one of the lowest among the OECD nation (Bewes Andreasen 17). Sociological Factors Most purchases of Blancpain wristwatch are physiological driven. The consumer always aims at fulfilling a certain social need. That is the reason most board members of high-profile organization are most likely going to choose this Brand over others. Therefore, this Brand has the opportunity of increasing it market share by focusing on such factors (Blancpain). For example, political goodwill in Russia is not t he only reason why the Brand appears to be doing well in the market. Also, the cultural tendency of showing off one’s wealth through purchasing of luxury item, has contributed significantly (Bewes Andreasen 22).Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, for over two century it has been the culture of the rich and elite Chinese citizens to purchase expensive luxury. Predominantly, the most elegant gift that the rich of this country offer during weddings is wristwatches. This has propelled most wristwatch makers to fasten their effort of increasing the market share in the region. With the era of cheap labour coming to an end in this country and most Chinese expected to enjoy an increase disposable income, there is a high probability most will turn to luxury spending. In fact, already the country is experiencing a 30% annual increase in demand for luxury goods (Bewes Andreasen 23) Technological factors For a company that boast on its ability to develop and maintain traditional mechanical watches, advancement in technology can prove to be a threat. The early 1930 gave birth to a new technology which enabled the development of quartz watches. Electronic quartz watches pose great challenge since they are considered to be more accurate, relatively easy and cheap to produce. As result their sale price is relatively cheaper. On the other hand, mechanical are complicated and expensive to produce. In addition, they are considered to be less accurate and it is only natural for them to enjoy relatively smaller market share (Blancpain). A case in point is the comparison between the Japanese quartz wrist watch and Swiss, which Blancpain belong to, mechanically luxury wrist watch. The Japanese wrist watch is more accurate and can retain battery charge for over ten years, it still command relatively minimum retail price of approximately 50$. On other hand, the Swiss is less accurate, it power reserve is only for a week and therefore requires continuous maintenance, yet still it command a huge retail price of approximately $ 25,000. As mention in the Blancpain philosophy, there are so many complications involved in creating mechanical wrist watch. Perhaps this is the reason 2003 figures indicate that annually Switz erland only produced 2% of globally produced wristwatches. However when it comes to the values, the country earned approximately EURO 9 billion which is equivalent to 65% of the total value. Definitely new technology, such as quartz watch and in-built clock in electronic media such as laptops and phones, pose a threat. Nevertheless the brand can capitalize on the appeal associate with its year of experience and traditional craftsmanship (Bewes Andreasen 25). Legal Factors The fact Blancpain operates in a global arena makes it susceptible to a number legal factors and regulations. To begin with it must comply with the watch certification of the countries it focuses on. This regulation are aimed at ensuring that the watches are of high quality and do not present any risk to the consumer. Blancpain must also complain with the Swiss law in order to be labelled as Swiss made watch. From thereon it can capitalize on good reputation of Switzerland craftsmanship. The global directive towar ds the restriction of any unsafe manufacturing material has resulted in increasing the cost of manufacturing by approximately 16%. This cost is incurred during the process of testing whether the finished product comply with this directive (Bewes Andreasen 24). Environmental Factors Since Blancpain produces mechanical wristwatch, it has been able to avoid environmental degradation that is a society with electrical gadgets. It does not depend on electrical power, a factor that is currently playing a big part in affecting the environment adversely. The price tag that come with Blancpain wrist brand ensure customers are attached to it and therefore can not carelessly dispose it, hence reducing that amount of un-recycled waste in the environment (Blancpain). Internal (Micro) environment Strength and Weakness part of the swot analysis were used to analyse the internal factors affecting the organization (Kats Shapiro). Strength and Weakness Blancpain is a reputable and well known brand, it belong to the swatch group which is a Swiss company and a favourite of the high end consumer. Similarly it has a heritage of approximately 400 years and therefore it credited with having vast experienced in its specialized field. Another important factor is its team of qualified workers. Its top management are well renowned for their contribution in the industry (Blancpain). However one major weakness surrounding this company its inability to produce a large volume of products to satisfy the customers need. In addition the cost of manufacturing its products is relatively expensive as compared to electrical quartz watch. Similarly, ultra flat style which is a feature of Blancpain products is very delicate and requires handling with extra care. Also the negative publicity that followed major top management change did little justice to this brand. Allegations were that these changes were as result of hard economic times and an effort to maintain family control within the business (B lancpain). Competitive edge To achieve a competitive advantage a company can either adopt a cost leadership strategy or take a differentiation approach (Kats Shapiro 68). Blancpain cannot adopt the first strategy since it is difficult for it to cut down cost and still produce the exact product features it wishes. Therefore the organization has adopted a differentiation strategy by formulating more than one unique selling preposition. The prepositions are found on the company philosophy and emphasize on; the years of operation, traditional and unique method of manufacturing the clock, attentive to details, and inclusion of high craftsmanship (Blancpain). Market Segmentation After conducting a situation analysis the next step involved market segmentation. This is the process of identifying and classifying markets portion depending on various attributes that differentiate them (Kats Shapiro 79). The cost of manufacturing a mechanical watch is tedious and expensive and therefore Blanc pain should only focus on high-end consumer segment. Demographic attributes such as consumer life cycle stage, income, Gender, lifestyle and social class should be given special attention while identifying this group of consumers. The possibility of enjoying increase profitability and high rate of return, the capability of the Brand to satisfy the needs of this group, and the fact that these consumers have a common needs and therefore react to marketing messages in same way, confirmed the choice of the segment. This segment considers wristwatch to be more of a fashion statement as oppose to time telling device. As result Blancpain will be able to avoid competition from quartz watches. Target Market Strategy Concentrated target market strategy is the most appropriate in this situation. This is because this strategy allows the organization to focus on a single selected segment and hence apply only a single marketing mix (Kats Shapiro 81). With this strategy Blancpain will now be able specialize in creating mechanical watches more efficiently, focusing on needs and desires of its sophisticated consumers. Considering the human talent required to create the desired watch is limited, this approach allow for effective utilization of this scarce resource. Positioning As established the targeted buyers value sophistication and excellence, they want to differentiate themselves from the rest of the crowd. Therefore, Blancpain should never be tempted to position itself as an impressionist. Therefore very little change is proposed here since its unique selling preposition creates a positive perception on the minds of the consumer. However the fact that consumer has to read almost the entire company philosophy in order to establish these preposition is a weakness by itself. For that reason this position strategy that focuses on the features and benefit of the product, can be improved by developing a single statement that describe the unique selling preposition. Marketing G oals and Objectives Blancplain profitability is not through increase sale volume but rather by emphasizing on the quality of its wristwatch. Therefore the objectives should be driven towards justify the high sale prices. As a result, the goals and objective of this Brand should be: To increase its quality leadership by 20% annually. To increase product awareness by 30% annually. To strengthen the business to customer relationship within the first 4 month of the implementation of the plan. Marketing Strategies and Programs The above goals and objectives can only be achieved by adopting an appropriate marketing programs and strategies. Choosing the right strategies and programs involves making fundamental marketing decision relating to the marketing mix (Kats Shapiro 88). Marketing Mix decision The first decision is to define the product by emphasizing that it is a highly sophisticated mechanically wrist watch brand. Secondly, customer should be well aware that it is a refined luxu ry product and as result it is expected to charge premium prices. Over the four P’s in the market strategy, the price will be very important to this brand. This is because the company aims to maintain quality leadership by using high prices to signal the quality of its product. A skimming strategy therefore would be appropriate for such a segment which is relatively less price sensitive (Kats Shapiro 96). The prices will psychologically stimulate the targeted market to purchase the product. To achieve our third objective, channel of distribution are going to be minimized as much as possible. Only retailers who are licensed by Blancpain as result of meeting specified qualification should be allowed to sell this Brand. However, middle men are going to be reduced considerably through the use of internet. Auctioning through the internet will provide the consumer with a number of benefits including sufficient time to bid, gauge demand for product and set reasonable bid price. The adopted promotion strategy will aim to create a good public relation. Media releases are going to be used to tell the story about the company’s heritage and culture of excellence. They shall be followed by events which are organized with the aim of pointing out the unique product features. In addition these events are expected to create good networks that are going to be maintained through follow-ups for future promotions. Conclusion Definitely by narrowing down its focus to particular specified segment, Blancpain is bound to enjoy a number of benefits. First and foremost, it will be able to utilize it resources more efficiently and manage the cost of manufacturing. Secondly, it is most likely going to tackle the weakness of being unable to meet the current demand. Also very important is the fact that it will stand a chance of building an effective customer relationship. Hence in the process point out to the unique product features that justify the high selling price. Works Cited Bewes, Gilligan Andreasen Richard. â€Å"The luxury Watch Industry, Swiss watch Domination† industry watch report 19.32 (2008): 15-40. Print. Blancpain. Blancpain Manufacture, 2009. Website. 10th December 2009. Kats, Gabriel, Shapiro Hollans. Principles of Effective Strategic Marketing. Burlington: Elsevier, 2008. Print. This assessment on Marketing Plan Proposal for Blancpain Brand was written and submitted by user Journee Cash to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.